Types of Diabetes and its Complications

Track 9: Types of Diabetes and its Complications:

Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. It is classified into different types, each with distinct causes, symptoms, and management strategies. Complications arising from diabetes can impact various organ systems. This article provides a concise overview of diabetes types and associated complications.

Type 1 Diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes, typically develops in childhood or early adulthood. It results from the immune system attacking and destroying insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Complications of type 1 diabetes include diabetic ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease.

Type 2 Diabetes:

Type 2 diabetes, the most common form, usually develops in adulthood. It is characterized by insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. Risk factors include genetic predisposition, obesity, inactivity, unhealthy diet, and certain medical conditions. Complications of type 2 diabetes encompass cardiovascular disease, retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, peripheral artery disease, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Gestational Diabetes:

Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy and typically resolves after delivery. It results from hormonal changes causing insulin resistance. Although symptoms may be absent, complications include increased risks during pregnancy and delivery, as well as potential future development of type 2 diabetes for both mother and child.

Complications of Diabetes:

Diabetes can lead to cardiovascular complications such as heart disease and stroke, eye complications like diabetic retinopathy, nerve complications including peripheral neuropathy, kidney complications leading to nephropathy, and foot complications like ulcers and infections. Other complications involve skin conditions, dental problems, hearing impairment, and mental health disorders.

Diabetes encompasses various types, each with its own characteristics and complications. Managing diabetes through early diagnosis, medical care, a healthy lifestyle, and regular monitoring of blood sugar levels is crucial to reduce the risk of complications.


  • Diabetic cardiomyopathy
  • Kidney failure
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Hypoglycaemia
  • Macro vascular complications
  • Cardiovascular disease

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